A ddylid datganoli plismona i Gymru?

2 Rhagfyr 2014

Erthygl gan Alys Thomas, Gwasanaeth Ymchwil Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru

Llun: o Geograph gan Eric Jones.  Dan drwydded Creative Commons.

Llun: o Geograph gan Eric Jones. Dan drwydded Creative Commons.

Ar 3 Rhagfyr 2014 bydd Aelodau’r Cynulliad yn trafod y cynnig canlynol

Cynnig bod Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru:

Yn credu y dylid datganoli plismona (heblaw am Asiantaeth Troseddu Cenedlaethol y DU a diogelwch gwladol).

Nid yw plismona wedi’i ddatganoli yng Nghymru ar hyn o bryd. Mae pedair ardal heddlu yng Nghymru, sef Gogledd Cymru, Dyfed-Powys, Gwent a De Cymru. Yn dilyn Deddf Diwygio’r Heddlu a Chyfrifoldeb Cymdeithasol 2011, mae gan bob un o’r heddluoedd Gomisiynydd Heddlu a Throseddu a gaiff ei ethol yn uniongyrchol, sy’n dwyn yr heddlu i gyfrif ar ran pobl yr ardal y maent yn ei gwasanaethau.

Roedd adroddiad Silk Rhan II ar bwerau’r Cynulliad yn cynnwys yr argymhellion canlynol:

  • dylid datganoli plismona a meysydd diogelwch cymunedol ac atal troseddu cysylltiedig;
  • dylid cynnal lefelau presennol o gydweithio trawsffiniol;
  • ni ddylid datganoli pwerau o ran arestio, cwestiynu a chyhuddo’r rhai o dan amheuaeth o gyflawni trosedd, a phwerau cyffredinol cwnstabliaid, oni chaiff y gyfraith droseddol ei datganoli a hyd nes y bydd hynny’n digwydd;
  • ni ddylid datganoli’r Asiantaeth Troseddu Cenedlaethol;
  • dylid datganoli cyflogau’r heddlu, ond ni ddylid datganoli pensiynau’r heddlu; a
  • dylai Llywodraeth y DU a Llywodraeth Cymru gytuno ar systemau codi tâl a thelerau ar gyfer darparu gwasanaethau Coleg yr Heddlu, Comisiwn Cwynion Annibynnol yr Heddlu, Arolygiaeth Cwnstabliaeth EM a chydwasanaethau megis system Cyfrifiadur Cenedlaethol yr Heddlu.

Dangosodd pôl piniwn Comisiwn Silk o bobl Cymru fod 63 y cant o blaid rhoi’r cyfrifoldeb am blismona yng Nghymru i’r Cynulliad Cenedlaethol a Llywodraeth Cymru. Roedd y rhan fwyaf o’r rhai a ymatebodd (48%) yn credu bod plismona eisoes wedi’i ddatganoli yng Nghymru.

Yn ei thystiolaeth i Gomisiwn Silk cynigodd Llywodraeth Cymru y dylai’r Cynulliad gael cyfrifoldeb deddfwriaethol am blismona, hynny yw, llywodraethu a gweinyddu gwasanaeth yr heddlu yng Nghymru. Mae hefyd yn ceisio pwerau deddfu yng nghyswllt diogelwch cymunedol ac atal troseddu. Yn ôl y Llywodraeth:

‘Nid yw trosglwyddo cyfrifoldeb dros y gwasanaeth plismona yn achosi unrhyw faterion o egwyddor ynghylch llywodraethu’r Deyrnas Unedig ac o fewn y Deyrnas Unedig, a byddai’n cyd-fynd yn llwyr â diben datganoli, sef dod â gwasanaethau cyhoeddus yn agosach at y cymunedau a’u gwneud yn fwy uniongyrchol atebol iddynt.’

Fodd bynnag, dyma a ddywedwyd yn nhystiolaeth Llywodraeth y DU:

‘A range of national policing structures and arrangements involve cross boundary issues (e.g. organised crime) or provide significant economies of scale (e.g. IT procurement). The separating out of these national structures and arrangements would involve considerable initial start up and running cost for the Welsh Government. There would also be a cost to UK Government in terms of the break up of current structures and contractual implications.’

Roedd hefyd o’r farn na ddylid datganoli plismona heb ddatganoli agweddau eraill ar y system cyfiawnder troseddol, ac roedd yn erbyn gwneud hynny.

Dywedodd Cymdeithas Prif Swyddogion yr Heddlu:

‘If policing and criminal justice is to be devolved to the Welsh Government then it is a fundamental principle that this must result in added value and improved service to the people of Wales. Policing and devolution of the Criminal Justice system are intrinsically linked and one should not be devolved without the other.’

Dywedodd Christopher Salmon, Comisiynydd Heddlu a Throseddu Heddlu Dyfed-Powys:

‘I believe that, broadly, the right balance exists between Westminster and Cardiff in relation to policing. I am in complete support of the principle of devolution. It is a necessary and welcome response to social, democratic and technical change. In a 21st Century democracy this should prioritise giving power to people rather than institutions. This is the rationale that underpins Police and Crime Commissioners, introduced across England and Wales in November 2012. They place accountability firmly in the hands of local electorates.’

Fodd bynnag, dywedodd Winston Roddick QC CB, Comisiynydd Heddlu a Throseddu Heddlu Gogledd Cymru, ‘although Policing is but a part of the criminal justice system and that the latter should be seen as a whole, these are not sufficient reasons for not devolving policing at this time.’ Dywedodd hefyd:

‘North Wales Police and the Police and Crime Commissioners work daily with devolved services and work streams. Devolving policing to the Welsh Government would achieve consistency of policy and it would make for more ‘joined up’ government which would be reflected in the services that work for the people of Wales.’

Dywedodd Ian Johnson, Comisiynydd Heddlu a Throseddu Gwent, fod yn  rhaid i unrhyw gynigion i newid y trefniadau presennol ddangos beth a fyddai’r manteision i bobl Cymru o dan drefniadau llywodraethu diwygiedig. Dim ond os gellir dangos eu bod yn ychwanegu gwerth at y sefyllfa bresennol y dylid ystyried unrhyw drefniadau newydd.

Mewn erthygl yng nghyfnodolyn y Sefydliad Materion Cymreig, Agenda, roedd Alun Michael, Comisiynydd Heddlu a Throseddu Heddlu De Cymru yn dadlau:

‘While political power over the criminal justice system, including policing, still sits in Whitehall, the fact is that decision-making about most police activity has now been devolved. Whitehall has handed over the leadership to Police and Crime Commissioners. And the four Welsh Commissioners, despite their political range (two Independents, one Conservative, one Labour and Co-operative) have immediately started to work together on Wales-wide issues, with some excellent and fruitful meetings with Welsh Government. So common sense, pragmatism and purpose have brought about de facto devolution and it’s only a question of when the machinery of government will catch up.’

Roedd y dystiolaeth a gyflwynodd Ffederasiwn Heddlu Cymru a Lloegr i Gomisiwn Silk yn dweud y byddai’n bosibl datganoli pwerau yng nghyswllt yr heddlu i Gymru heb ddatganoli rhannau eraill o’r system cyfiawnder troseddol, ac yn rhagweld y byddai angen sicrhau cytundeb cydgymorth rhwng yr heddlu datganoledig yng Nghymru a heddluoedd gweddill y DU.

Dywedodd Steve Williams, Cadeirydd Ffederasiwn Heddlu Cymru a Lloegr.

‘In preparing this submission, the PFEW sought out not to say whether a devolved police service in Wales ‘should be achieved’ but rather whether it ‘could be achieved’.

The extensive evidence we gathered and considered suggests that a devolved police service in Wales is possible.

It is clear that many questions remain unanswered and there is great deal of work to be undertaken by both governments to ensure any transition is made effectively and smoothly.

If this were to be progressed, we would play our full and equal part in achieving that aim.

But one thing of which we are certain is that any decision to devolve policing in Wales must be made in the best interests of the public and the public alone.’